These underground galleries date back to 1644, when the Spaniards had to modernize the medieval fortifications. The 23-kilometre long galleries were enlarged only 40 years later by Vauban, the French military engineer and fortress builder. In the beginning of the 18th century the Austrians reinforced the fortress. These fortifications belong to the part of the fortress which is still in excellent shape. In view of these impressive galleries it is understandable why this fascinating fortification work was known as the “Gibraltar of the North”. No wonder that the fortifications and the Old Historic Town enjoy worldwide fame: in 1994 they became UNESCO World heritage.
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